Control (wild type/elf3-1) values represent means ± se for n = 10 to 14. Further classification of this population by GI genotype revealed a smaller, but clearly additive, effect of the GI locus on flowering time under SD conditions, with lines carrying the ICCV 96029 (putative wild-type) GI allele flowering earlier than those with the CDC Frontier GI allele (Supplemental Fig. 1), neither of these loci appears to strongly affect flowering time under LD, suggesting that this difference may be due to other unknown QTLs, potentially including qdf-LD8. Chickpea accessions carrying the 11-bp deletion in CaELF3a. Overall, our results lead us to conclude that the chickpea ortholog of ELF3 is responsible for the qdf-SD5 QTL on Ca5 and that this gene is equivalent to the previously described Efl1 locus. This region closely corresponds to the location of the qdf-SD5 flanking markers in our population at 35 to 36.5 Mb and is consistent with the location of the CaSTMS22 marker reported by Jamalabadi et al. Efl1 has been associated previously with several QTLs on Ca3 (Cho et al., 2002; Jamalabadi et al., 2013), Ca4 (Upadhyaya et al., 2015), and Ca5 (Vadez et al., 2012; Pushpavalli et al., 2015). D, Phylogram of ELF3-like genes across several families. Supplemental Figure S3. Sequences of flanking markers are shown in Supplemental Data Set S1. carry two copies of ELF3, forming two separate clades that we designated ELF3a and ELF3b (Fig. DTF was taken as the number of days from seedling emergence to the first fully open flower. Its wild progenitor, Cicer reticulatum, is a quantitative long day (LD) plant that exhibits responsiveness to vernalization (Smithson et al., 1985; Abbo et al., 2002). 2; Supplemental Data Set S2). In order to confirm that the wild-type gene is functional and that the caelf3a mutation affects the functionality of the encoded protein, we performed a transgenic complementation assay using the Arabidopsis elf3-1 null mutant, which is photoperiod insensitive and flowers significantly earlier than the Columbia-0 wild type under both LD (6.55 ± 0.16 versus 8.54 ± 0.39 rosette leaves at flowering; P = 0.0002) and SD (6.64 ± 0.2 versus 41.7 ± 2.66 rosette leaves at flowering; P < 0.0001; Fig. The results showed that the only CaELF3a sequence polymorphism present within this germplasm collection was the 11-bp deletion in the eight lines shown in Figure 7. 2) using BLASTP searches against the Cicer arietinum NCBI RefSeq proteins of the CDC Frontier genome assembly (ASM33114 version 1; Varshney et al., 2013). The "peas" themselves are actually seeds encased in small pods that grow on the plant. Currently, four major Mendelian loci controlling flowering time in chickpea have been identified through classical genetic analysis, with recessive alleles at these loci conferring early flowering. Chickpeas are an important food plant in India, Africa, and Central and South America. Mean values ± se are shown for n = 2 to 3 biological replicates, each consisting of pooled material from two plants. Cover and process on high speed for two or three minutes until a powdery flour forms. ↵[OPEN] Articles can be viewed without a subscription. A number of QTLs within these regions have been reported previously, including the QTLs on Ca4 (Cobos et al., 2007; Varshney et al., 2014) and Ca5 (Cho et al., 2002; Vadez et al., 2012; Jamalabadi et al., 2013; Pushpavalli et al., 2015). Branches with bootstrap values less than 50% have been collapsed. The following supplemental materials are available. A cool-season crop, chickpeas grow best when temperatures hover between 70 and 80 degrees during the day, and stay above 65 degrees at night. Phosphinothricin-resistant T1 plants were selected, and T2 resistant transformants were grown under standard LD and SD conditions (16:8 h and 8:16 h, respectively) and scored for flowering time by counting the number of rosette leaves at flowering. Chickpea, like wheat, is self-pollinating. Pods are indicated by yellow arrows. Uses for chickpea flour: An … Enjoy. To gain further insight into sequence variation at this locus, we resequenced the entire CaELF3a gDNA in these 109 lines. Cultivated for at least 10,000 years, chick-pea remains an important staple food in the Middle East, Africa and India, among other places. Marker sequences are provided in Supplemental Data Set S1. 3D), consistent with Rubenach et al. Together, these facts suggest that this mutation in CaELF3a arose following the shift from autumn to spring sowing in chickpea, and most likely as part of the relatively modern replacement of landraces by cultivars produced using modern breeding methods. 4 medium (Sun Gro Horticulture Canada) in growth chambers for 12 h at 22°C and 12 h at 16°C. As a result, there is considerable ambiguity surrounding the map positions of the chickpea Efl1 to Efl4 loci. Values represent means ± se for n = 53 ( ELF3a ) and n = 2 to 3 biological,... Or more days to mature that carried the 11-bp deletion in CaELF3a is provided in Data. Part of the QTL peak are indicated in Mb these plants are and... Separate lines or separate them with commas carried the 11-bp polymorphism displayed in red,,... In growth chambers under a 12-h light/dark cycle at 22°C blue, violet or. Into small flat cakes or balls and fried for falafel, a Middle... 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