Vascular wilt results from the bacterial invasion of the plant’s vascular system. Pre-harvest and post-harvest tuber rot may result in storage loss of 25%. A shoestring virus, which is transmitted mechanically and by aphids, with particles consisting of flexuous rods 600 nm in length, is known to occur in various spp. Yam anthracnose is a fungal infection that can impact your yam plants in any geographic region. Dry rot is considered as the most devastating of all the storage diseases of yam. stem basal canker (F. Protozoan diseases in animals pdfyam diseases and control pdf Cassava Diseases Prevention and Control to Ensure Food The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. The data currently available do not enable determination of the damage that parasitic fungi cause to yam. (teleomorph Glomerella cingulata [Stonem.] Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Plant may produce few small tubers with less starch content. Even though it won't effect yield sometimes foliage cause poor growth and tubers may show delay in germination or even stopped. Yam anthracnose disease is caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz. Yam diseases can be controlled by several integrated control practices. Damaging diseases occurring on yams from planting to harvest include seed-tuber rot (Penicilliwn spp. The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. Spauld. Today, you’ll also find topical wild yam creams that are meant to raise low progesterone levels, which can help ease PMS. in storage) the tubers are attacked by 27 … Pests and diseases of yam and their control methods Pests of Yam Yam tuber pests makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability. Wild yam has most often been prescribed by herbalists for internal use for PMS symptoms. 1 and 2), and lesion nematodes (Scutellonema bradys, Pratylenchus spp. The leaves turn yellow in color. Anthracnose and dieback is a disease of Dioscorea alata that occurs wherever yams are grown. Yam Mosaic Virus Disease: This disease is caused by an aphid-transmitted potyvirus that infects several species of Dioscorea. Hosts. Disease is reported in West Africa , … Yam scales, mealybugs, and a few beetles cause significant losses to tubers both in the field and in storage. Initially this dry rot is of cream and light yellow lesions appear just below the outer skin without any external symptom. The leaves and tubers are covered with small white scales from field to storage. Shumei Hua, Zhihua Chen, Lihong Li, Kuan-Hung Lin, Yangwen Zhang, Jieyu Yang, Shi-Peng Chen, Differences in immunity between pathogen-resistant and -susceptible yam cultivars reveal insights into disease prevention underlying ethylene supplementation, Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 10.1007/s13562-020-00582-9, (2020). A shoestring virus, which is transmitted mechanically and by aphids, with particles consisting of flexuous rods 600 nm in length, is known to occur in various spp. A shoestring virus, which is transmitted mechanically and by aphids with particles consisting of flexuous rods 600 nm in length, is known to occur in various species of yam. Central Exp. It causes black necrotic spots on the leaves which develop along the veins. The infected tubers show dry rot of 1 to 2 cm. and Nicotiana benthamiana.In extracts of D. cayenensis leaves infectivity was lost after 10 min at 60 d̀C but not 55 d̀C and after dilution to 10 ‐3 but not 10 ‐2.A purification procedure is described. of Plant Pathology) Pegus, J.E. Stat. DISEASES OF GREATER YAM • Field diseases Anthracnose - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Yam Mosaic Virus Disease Yam mild mosaic virus Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus Dioscorea alata poty virus Dioscorea alata bacilliform virus Dioscorea alata ring spot mottle virus Concentric leaf spot disease- S. rolfsi • Storage disease Dry rot - Botryodiplodia theobromae Links will be auto-linked. In that case scrap out the external layer of tuber to check the disease incidence. Flattened oval to round disc-like insect covered in waxy substance on tree branches; insects attract ants which may also be present; insect colony may also be associated with growth of sooty mold due to fungal colonization of sugary honeydew excreted by the insect, Insects have a wide host range; often tended by ants which farm them for their sugary honeydew secretions, Yam tuber infested by white scale insect (2). The common symptoms are infected leaves show yellow and green patterns (called mosaics) between the veins or may show a narrow green strips bordering the veins (called vein banding). Can eating a diet rich in yam and palm oil prevent and ‘cure’ heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes? Reduction in edible portion of tubers. Direct Control. Nearly 47% of all yam tubers on sale in Nigerian markets were infested with S. bradys (Bridge, 1973) and both dry rot and wet rot diseases of tubers have been observed in all Nigerian yam barns and markets sampled (Adesiyan and Odihirin, 1977). Diseases. Other diseases and pests of taro include:a) Corm and root rots caused by the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora. Yam Anthracnose Disease (YAD) can cause up to 80% yield loss where it is endemic. Entry of fungus through this wounds causes further decay of tubers in storage. Severe infestation may leads to tuber shrivel. It may cause up to 40% loss in yield. Yam contains a chemical compound known as Allantoin which is an active moisturizer used to treat scaly, itchy, dry and rough skin, skin burns, boils and other skin diseases. Yam mosaic virus is always associated with yam mild mosaic virus, yam badnaviruses and cucumber mosaic virus in Africa making this disease more complex. Yam mosaic virus is always associated with yam mild mosaic virus, yam badnaviruses and cucumber mosaic virus in Africa making this disease more complex. The stems can be affected as well as the end buds, thus stopping growth. The disease is recorded from Fiji, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. d) Aphids. If the disease is severe the leaves become long, thin and strap shape (called shoe-string symptom) and whole plant become stunted. b) Nematodes. The major disease affecting Dioscorea cayenensis in the Ivory Coast is caused by a virus which was transmitted by mechanical inoculation to some Dioscorea spp. of yam. It will be useful for people who smoke in their menu, as they lack vitamin A in their bodies, which can cause the development of various diseases. Different species of yams are grown in the "yam zone"of West Africa. this is open class study site. Pest and diseases in crops Leaves and shoots of the yam will blacken and die, resulting in stunted, small, deformed harvests. Preventive methods, ... Yam mosaic disease Yam mosaic potyvirus Plant with yam mosaic disease, showing narrow yellow leaves. its all about life Disease is reported in West Africa , South America and Caribbean. Dry rot is considered as the most devastating of all the storage diseases of yam. Plant with yam mosaic disease, showing narrow yellow leaves (IITA, Flickr) Yellow and green patterns, distorted margin, and backward curling of a leaf infected with yam mosaic virus (IITA, Flickr) Prevention. Plant disease - Plant disease - Symptoms and signs: Bacterial diseases can be grouped into four broad categories based on the extent of damage to plant tissue and the symptoms that they cause, which may include vascular wilt, necrosis, soft rot, and tumours. Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quantity, marketable value and … Yam crops face pressure from a range of insect pests and fungal and viral diseases, as well as nematode. this site functions with internal linking marked in colours. There are many strains of Colletrotrichum … Abstract Various virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam have been reported in Nigeria since 1956. It may cause up to 40% loss in yield. Tubers and feeder roots are galled. We review various methods of management for these insect pests. 4.5 Other Diseases and Pests. is a tropical tuber crop produced for food and medicinal purposes.Yams are infested by a broad taxonomic diversity of insect pests. At later stage the rot become light and dark brown to black in color and tubers may show external cracks. Some plants may recover from the virus infection soon after first symptom but virus may survive in plant and reduce the vigour. Yam mosaic virus, Yam mosaic virus and Yam mild mosaic potyvirus, Cucumovirus, Dioscorea bacilliform virus, Potexvirus Dioscorea latent virus. Its extract also helps to relieve chronic inflammatory disease, chest tightness and shortness of breath. Current efforts to control virus threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam. Anthracnose: It is one of the most severe yam diseases, in particular among the species Dioscorea alata. We reviewed a total of 73 insect species associated with Dioscorea species in different parts of the world. Of these, Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus), Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV, genus Potyvirus) and Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs, genus Badnavirus) are widespread in West Africa and YMV has been shown to cause important diseases in yam [3,8,9,10]. Dry rot is considered as the most devastating of all the storage diseases of yam. Yam tubers infested by nematode and white scale insect. Their growth and dormant phases correspond respectively to the wet season and the dry season. How to Control the spread of yam pest: Apply insecticide like BHC at planting to avoid disease spreading around Dust yam sett with aldrin dust Practice crop rotation to control disease spread Anthracnose can be prevented using a fungicide with benomyl, but you need to remove affected plants and all plant debris from the field immediately in order to prevent the spread of the disease. In field and storage yams are exposed to various diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. The virus is spread by aphids and vegetative propagation: A wide range of nematodes are associated with yam, but only two ‘types’ are of concern: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Tubers are deformed and develop abnormal rootlets. Anthracnose and virus diseases exert devastating impacts on yam production in many tropical regions of the world where the crop contributes to food security and income generation. The adult beetles burrow into the soil and feed on the tubers. Monitoring. People with diabetes are allowed to eat yam, as due to the low glycemic index after eating a root crop, the sugar level remains unchanged. Yellow and green patterns, distorted Learn more about your crops in our library, Learn about ways to keep your crops healthy, Small, dark brown spots or black lesions on leaves which may be surrounded by a chlorotic halo; leaf necrosis; dieback of stem; withered leaves and scorched appearance, Disease overwinters in plant debris; occurs worldwide. Greater and lesser yam beetles are both important pests of yams in West Africa. (Mantell, 1980 [5]; IITA, 1993 [6]). It reduces market value and quality of tubers (up to 32 - 59 % in Nigeria). c) The taro planthopper, Tarophagus proserpina which not only transmits virus diseases, but can cause wilting and death of the plant in heavy infestations. You may use , Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Due to the losses incurred through the effect of diseases such as YAD, yam breeders and other affiliated scientists are trying to breed for plant materials with resistance to this disease. Some time the infected tubers may not show external cracking which make it difficult to diagnose. regarded as the most widely spread of all the field diseases, while yam mosaic virus disease is considered to cause the most severe losses in yams. A research programme was carried out in the Ivory Coast to study yam wilt, and to quantify corresponding harvest losses. ), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF FRENCH BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF MAIZE (Zea mays), SUSTAINABLE PEST MANAGEMENT IN GREEN HOUSES AND HIGH TUNNELS, How to make Your Own Animal Feeds (For Cattles and Sheep), Graphical Representation of Market Prices for September 2020, Graphical Representation of Market Prices for March 2020. Various virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam have been reported in Nigeria since 1956. May Enhance Fertility. Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quantity, marketable value and edible portions of tubers and those reductions are more severe in stored yams. Yam is infested by 48 species when the crop is in the field, and after harvest (i.e. There is no above ground symptom with yam nematode infestation. Studies on diseases of cassava and yam in Trinidad [1988] Rajnauth, G. (Ministry of Food Production, Marine Exploitation, Forestry and the Environment, Centeno (Trinidad and Tobago). Given wild yam’s hormone-like effects, it’s no surprise that it can have benefits for fertility. of yam. Prevention. The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. , Fusariwn oxysporwn and F. Solani), root rot (F. Oxysporwn and Pythiwn sp. Image courtesy of agrifarming.in, PEST AND DISEASES OF YAM (Dioscorea spp. For maximum yield, the yams require a humid tropical environment, with an annual rainfall over 1500 mm distributed uniformly throughout the growing season. The actual yield loss is estimated up to 27 to 55 %. The infected plants are stunted with poor growth. Dept. Various virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam have been reported in Nigeria since 1956. The complexities in their epidemiology necessitate the use of integrated approaches in their management. With progress in disease lesion spreads deeper (maximum up to 2 cm). Information provided by https://coleacp.org. Virus diseases pose serious challenges to seed and ware yam production and also impede international exchange of yam planting material in West Africa, which is home to about 91% of the global edible yam production. Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agriculture, farming practices, animal production, cropping systems, plant study. ), which The pest which affects the plant are nematodes such as root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) ), which are evident by the disfigurement they cause to tubers (Figs. The symptoms observed in each host can be vein banding, curling, mottling, green-spotting, flecking, etc. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Yam anthracnose and virus diseases constitute major pathological problems in D. alata production in all yam growing regions of the world. 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